Outcomes of Person-Centered Planning in Medicaid Home- and Community-Based Services

Citation: Chong, N., Caldwell, J., Kaye, H. S., & Mitra, M. (2024). Outcomes of Person-Centered Planning in Medicaid Home- and Community-Based Services. The Gerontologist, 64(6), gnae017. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnae017

  • Peer Reviewed Article

Background and Objectives

Person-centered planning (PCP) allows recipients of home- and community-based service (HCBS) to plan services and supports according to their preferences and needs. The extent to which HCBS systems engage in PCP and evidence for the relationship between PCP and beneficiary outcomes are limited. We examine the prevalence of PCP among HCBS recipients and the relationship between PCP and person-reported outcomes.

Research Design and Methods

We used the 2018–2019 National Core Indicators—Aging and Disability survey, collected among adult Medicaid HCBS recipients in 12 states (n = 5,849). We examined 2 general PCP measures (1 on decision making and another on whether service plans reflected preferences/choices). We also constructed a scale to assess the fidelity of recipients’ service planning meeting to the PCP process. Outcomes included unmet service needs and community living (i.e., participation, control, and satisfaction). We examined recipient characteristics associated with PCP and used adjusted logistic regression models to assess the relationship between PCP and outcomes.


About 72% of HCBS recipients were involved in decision making, 72% reported their service plan reflected their preferences/choices, and 47% had meetings that scored “high fidelity” on the PCP fidelity scale. PCP measures were consistently related to lower likelihood of unmet service needs and greater likelihood of experiencing community living outcomes.

Discussion and Implications

Findings suggest PCP is important for adequately meeting service needs and ensuring community living among HCBS beneficiaries. Additional standardized measures should be developed to facilitate quality improvement and accountability for delivering person-centered HCBS.